Stone masonry is a type of building masonry construction that uses stones and mortar. This construction technique is used for building foundations, floors, retaining walls, arches, walls and columns. The stones used for masonry construction are natural rocks. These natural rocks are cut and dressed into proper shape in order to use it in masonry construction. Stones are one of the most durable and strong building materials.
The materials and the types of stone masonry construction are briefly explained.
Materials Used for Stone Masonry
The materials used for stone masonry are:
The stones used for masonry construction must be hard, tough and free from cracks, sand holes, and cavities. The selection of stone for particular work is dependent on the availability of the stone and the importance of the structure. The common stones used for masonry construction are limestone, sandstone, granite, marble, laterite, etc.
The binding material used for masonry construction is the mortar. Cement or lime with sand and water form the mix for masonry mortar. The mix formed is uniform in nature. The two main factors affecting the selection of mortar for masonry are:
- Strength required
- Colour of the stone
- The loads coming on the structure
Classification of Stone Masonry
The two main classifications of Stone Masonry are:
1. Rubble Masonry
This is the stone masonry type where stones employed are either undressed or roughly dressed. These masonry constructions do not have a uniform thickness. The strength of the rubble masonry is dependent on the:
- Quality of Mortar Used
- Use of Long through stones
- Proper filling of mortar between the stone spaces and joints
Rubble masonry can be again classified into